Case refers to the formal markers in Latin they are endings added to the stem of a noun or adjective that tell you how a noun or adjective is to be construed in relationship to other words in the sentence. What are the formal markers for English? Here are some reflections on how cases in general relate to meaning in a sentence.
There are 6 distinct cases in Latin: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Ablative, and Vocative; and there are vestiges of a seventh, the Locative.
The basic descriptions that follow are also found on the pages introducing the more detailed descriptions of the cases, which you may reach by clicking the case names in the prior sentence.
The nominative case is the case for the subject of the sentence. The subject is the person or thing about which the predicate makes a statement, and the name, "nominative," means "pertaining to the person or thing designated.
See the subject case in English, which is similar to the Latin nominative case. Go to: Nominative Case.
The genitive case is most familiar to English speakers as the case that expresses possession: "my hat" or "Harry's house. The most common are verbs of convicting, accusing and punishing. The construction is parallel to the English "I accuse you of treason. See how the possessive case and the preposition "of" work in English. To see a more detailed list of the Go to: Genitive Case. The dative case is most familiar to English speakers as the case of the indirect object, and the most common instance of the indirect object is the person "to or for whom" something is given: "I gave the book to her", "to her" would be in the dative case.
This common usage gives the case its name: it is the case that pertains to giving. However, it is more satisfactory to consider the dative case as the case for the person who is interested in a positive or negative way in some action or activity, and the most common and most accurate translation of the dative case is "for. Go to: Dative Case. The accusative case is the case for the direct object of transitive verbs, the internal object of any verb but frequently with intransitive verbsfor expressions indicating the extent of space or the duration of time, and for the object of certain prepositions.
Originally it was the case that indicated the end or ultimate goal of an action. Go to: Accusative Case.
The ablative case is the most complex of the cases in Latin. It may be used by itself or as the object of prepositions and it is commonly used to express with or without the aid of a preposition ideas translated into English by the prepositions "from" that is, an idea of separation and origin"with" and "by" that is, an idea of instrumentality or associationand "in" that is, an idea of place where or time when.
Go to: Ablative Case. The vocative case presents little problem for English speakers. It is usually the same as the nominative, as in English, and it is used when you address someone directly. The exceptions to the rule that the vocative is the same as the nominative are summarized in the phrase, Marce mi filiwhich is the vocative for Marcus meus filiusand is a convenient way to remember that all 2nd declension nouns in -us, have a vocative in -e, that the vocative of meus is miand that all 2nd declension nouns in -ius have a vocative in -i.
Latin also had a Locative Casebut few of the forms are still used in Classical Latin. The locative case is used to indicate "place where" and is found primarily with the names of cities, towns and small islands.
The forms for the Locative are the same as the genitive in the 1st and 2nd Declension Singular and the same as the Ablative in the 3rd Declension Singular. Towns like Athens, Athenae whose form is plural take their locative forms from the Ablative plural in all declensions. Other locative forms are: domi, humi, belli, militiae, and ruri. Go to: Nominative Case The genitive case is most familiar to English speakers as the case that expresses possession: "my hat" or "Harry's house.
Go to: Dative Case The accusative case is the case for the direct object of transitive verbs, the internal object of any verb but frequently with intransitive verbsfor expressions indicating the extent of space or the duration of time, and for the object of certain prepositions.In grammarthe locative case abbreviated LOC is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
It corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by". The locative case belongs to the general local cases, together with the lative and separative case. The Proto-Indo-European language had a locative case expressing "place where", an adverbial function.
The endings are reconstructed as follows:. It is found in:.Brutus speech julius caesar analysis
Old Latin still had a functioning locative singular, which descended from the Proto-Indo-European form. The locative plural was already identical to the dative and ablative plural. In Classical Latinchanges to the Old Latin diphthongs caused the originally-distinctive ending of the locative singular to become indistinguishable from the endings of some other cases. Because the locative was already identical to the ablative which had a "location" meaning as well in the plural, the loss of distinction between the endings eventually caused the functions of the locative case to be absorbed by the ablative case in Classical Latin.
The original locative singular ending, descended from the Old Latin form, remained in use for a few words. For first and second declensionit was identical to the genitive singular form.
In archaic times, the locative singular of third declension nouns was still interchangeable between ablative and dative forms, but in the Augustan Period the use of the ablative form became fixed. The Latin locative case was only used for the names of cities, "small" islands and a few other isolated words. Britannia was also considered to be a "large island". The first declension locative is by far the most common, because so many Roman place names were first declension, such as RomaRome, and therefore use the same form as the genitive and dative: Romaeat Rome, and Hiberniaein Ireland.
A few place-names were inherently plural, even though they are a single city, e. There are also a number of second declension names that could have locatives, e. In Ancient Greekthe locative merged with the Proto-Indo-European dative, so that the Greek dative represents the Proto-Indo-European dative, instrumentaland locative. The locative case had merged with the dative in early Germanic times and was no longer distinct in Proto-Germanic or in any of its descendants.
The dative, however, contrasts with the accusative casewhich is used to indicate motion toward a place it has an allative meaning.
The difference in meaning between dative and accusative exists in all of the old Germanic languages and survives in all Germanic languages that retain a distinction between the two cases.
Among Slavic languagesthe locative is mostly used after a fixed set of commonly used prepositions. Besides location, Slavic languages also employ locative as a way of expressing the method of doing an action, time when the action is to take place, as well as the topic or theme that something describes in more detail; as such it is subordinate to other cases.
Locative is becoming increasingly obsolete in East Slavic languagesespecially Russian [ citation needed ]while it remains in other branches, West Slavic and South Slavic languages.
The ending depends on whether the word is a noun or an adjective among other factors. In Old Church Slavonicthe locative is mostly used with preposition.
In Old East Slavicmoreover, place names are regularly used in the locative without a preposition.Latin Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, teachers, and students wanting to discuss the finer points of the Latin language. It only takes a minute to sign up. In Latin we have the ablative case.
Its common uses can be described as instrumental and locative ablativus loci. But in Slavonic languages we have a distinct locative case. Did the instrumental and locative merge into one case in Latin, or did the Slavonic language invent the separate cases?
When did this happen? Why don't we have a distinct locative case in Latin? There is a locative case in Proto-Indo-European, but in many later languages it merged into other cases, Slavonic languages being an exception.
So Slavonic didn't invent the locative case. Old Latin had a functioning locative case, but for a number of reasons like shift in pronunciationthe locative case merged for the most part into the ablative in Classical Latin.
So, in Classical Latin the locative is only fully functioning for small islands and towns or cities e. You probably learn these as exceptions in a basic Classical Latin textbook. PIE language, as it is reconstructed, had the following cases:. Latin, through its development, merged instrumental, ablative and locative in one case that is traditionally called ablative.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Why does the ablative case also include the locative? Ask Question.
Asked 4 years, 11 months ago. Active 4 years, 11 months ago. Viewed times. Improve this question. Nathaniel is protesting Though I would assume you've already seen it this question is realted. Active Oldest Votes. Improve this answer. On the other hand Slavic languages preserved them better, losing only ablative.
You might wanto to look into the following publication for more information on that topic: Indoeuropean Language and Culture, Benjamin Fortson. This is a good answer, except that the classical Latin locative is not mentioned; although it is a defective case, it is still productive for cities and small islands, and there are a fair number of other, non-productive locative nouns left, like domi.
The Slavic ablative merged with the genitive. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.Used for the subject of the verb. The subject is the person or thing doing the verb.
For example, All Latin nouns have a gender — they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. Even charters and parishes have a gender! The last two, Vocative and Locative, are relatively rare compared to the other five, and the Locative case is actually only used with a few select words.
The case is the most important part of the noun besides its actual meaning. Cases define exactly how the noun is used in the sentence. Here are the cases and their uses: Many languages use different cases to show the relation of the word in a sentence.
In Latin, the nouns, adjective and pronouns change their form depending on how they are used in a sentence. This form change is called a case. Although Old English also had this feature, it has mostly been lost during the transition into Modern English. However, a few English pronouns still exhibit this feature i. The cases of Latin are as follows:  Nouns are words that refer to a person, place, physical countable thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, or idea.
So we have in English, for example, the nouns Peter, Washington, tree, birthday, clay, redness, fifty, and justice. That list is not even complete, but even just the first three including nonphysical and uncountable things in thing will do for the non-linguist.
Case refers to the formal markers in Latin they are endings added to the stem of a noun or adjective that tell you how a noun or adjective is to be construed in relationship to other words in the sentence. What are the formal markers for English? Here are some reflections on how cases in general relate to meaning in a sentence. The vocative case presents little problem for English speakers.
It is usually the same as the nominative, as in English, and it is used when you address someone directly. The exceptions to the rule that the vocative is the same as the nominative are summarized in the phrase, Marce mi filiwhich is the vocative for Marcus meus filiusand is a convenient way to remember that all 2nd declension nouns in -us, have a vocative in -e, that the vocative of meus is miand that all 2nd declension nouns in -ius have a vocative in -i.
Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and participles are declined in two numbers singular and plural and in six principal cases.
There are six cases of Latin nouns that are commonly used. Another two—locative and instrumental—are vestigial and are not often used. Prev Post. Next Post.Rules detailed descriptions in the redesign :. Google Translate doesn't work for Latin. Will I learn Latin? A: Reading the text and understanding it, perhaps after a few attempts, but without recourse to another language, like you presumably understand English.
A: As with any skill, through a lot of practice - this is called Comprehensible Input. A: A result of the way that Latin has been taught for the last years is that teaching or even reading it is beyond many classicists' abilities. Yes, you read that right. Teaching in Latin requires a level of spoken fluency. Reading a lot requires much more time than most programs allow. Standardised tests don't test language proficiency, but must be prepared for.
Thus teaching Latin is replaced by teaching about it, and reading it by what used to be the emergency crutch of decoding it. In short, you will need to rely on yourself. Written specifically for autodidacts, it's the curriculum most in line with second language acquisition theory, and one of the most praised language courses not just for Latin, but for any language. Here's some of our recommendations on how to use it.
A: Of course. A: Possible but far from seamless due to differences in order and presentation. There are better and free intro grammars, but they should be superfluous between LLPSI and a no-nonsense school grammar with succint English and many examples.
A: It's a supplement for vocabulary and grammar practice. It can't serve as a self-contained language course. Be careful when generalising from its examples. A: No. A: Ok. Interested in getting a tattoo in Latin? Need help with the translation? What's the locative ending in the fourth declension? The use of the locative case in latin is limited to singular-only toponyms, usually cities or small islands of the first and second declension, and a small bunch of name such as "humus", "mare", "rus".
The former group usally forms the locative using the same ending of the genitive, while the latter nouns have proper unique endings usually -i. I can't think about any fourth declension word which possesses the locative case, and I fear there are none. The only possible candidate would be "domus", but it doesn't follow the fourth declension integrally, and has the locative in -i.
In conclusion, my answer would be that there is no locative case in fourth declension, apart from -i, which was the original Ancient Latin ending. Did you have a particular noun in mind? Totally agree with everything you said except for "singular-only.
I thought those were just considered ablatives. I guess it's just a different way to look at it. Place names with Portus Augusti, Traiani, Itius, etc. I have only seen them with prepositions, no locatives, but perhaps someone else has. I don't know of any off the top of my head, but I remember being taught in college that it was the same as the ablative in both singular and pluralAlthough the Croatian language has seven casesin the locative Lokativboth the singular and plural endings are identical to those used in the dative case.
In some cases, it can also be used to denotate the time e. The rules on when to use the locative are very straightforward. Mi smo na terasi. The dog is sleeping on the sofa.Caught a cold in spanish
I'm thinking about lunch. I'm running in the park. I'm waiting for you at the restaurant. We met at a museum. Answer Upoznali smo se u muzeju. Answer Molim te, nemoj spavati u mojem krevetu. How well do you speak Croatian? Basic Croatian vocabulary: Animals The islands of Croatia Getting around Zagreb Diminutive noun forms: making things smaller and cuter To the blog homepage.
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Language Holiday Pula Summer Language Holiday Zagreb Advent 4. Take our Croatian language test to find out your language level! Test your knowledge of Croatian vocabulary in our free Croatian vocabulary trainer!Outlook 365 download for windows 10
Improve your Croatian grammar with our free Croatian grammar trainer! Why does Croatian have no articles? Basic Croatian vocabulary: Numbers Using the imperative mood in Croatian The locative case in Croatian.
Exercise: how would you say the following in Croatian? From the Learn Croatian blog How well do you speak Croatian?Welcome to my blog for Serbian language learners. It contains free Serbian lessons and articles about Serbia and its lifestyle. To read more about me, visit my presentation page. The reality is that in some Serbian dialects the case system is different. But they obey their own rules. However, when speaking in a formal situation, a dialect speaker will normally conform to standard and use all the cases.
If you decide to learn Serbian properly, learn the Serbian cases. But do not rush: learn them step by step. Otherwise you might end up confused and frustrated. Cases are different forms of nouns, pronouns and adjectives used for different purposes.
latin noun cases
There are 7 Serbian cases:. When you start learning Serbian, or another similar languagecases are usually the most challenging part of the grammar you need to understand and get used to. But if not, let me explain what cases are based on your understanding of English. Because the English language still keeps remnants of the case system in its pronouns.
For subjector to say who is doing the action, we use the Nominative case: I and they. And for objector who is receiving the action, we use the Accusative case: me and them. The fun thing is that in Serbian we do this with ALL nouns, pronouns and adjectives: we decline them. To decline means to change a noun, pronoun or adjective for different cases. In some languages like German or Greekwhat shows the case is mostly the article. When someone starts learning Serbian as a foreign language, they typically stumble upon the cases and rely on prepositions on, to, at, with etc.
Slowly but steady, his brain is learning all these categories and sorting out the words and all the endings. You can get by with using prepositions only, you will be understood.
But to understand Serbian, especially more complex sentences and texts, you need to learn the meanings and endings of the cases.Bible quotes about life and death
The best strategy is to learn the cases one by one and little by little. You need to organize your thoughts around each category of nouns, pronouns and adjectives. You have to get used to using the cases and understanding them. Practice only with them, do a billion exercises with them, write and speak as many sentences as you can with them.
Along with that, build vocabulary. First alone, then combined and alternating. You will get there, step by step.
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